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Madhya Pradesh is the biggest Tendu Leaves (Leaves of Diospyros melonoxylon) producing State of India. The average annual production of Tendu Leaves in Madhya Pradesh is around 25 lakh standard bags, which is nearly 25% of the total Tendu Leaves production of the country. One standard bag of Tendu Leaves in Madhya Pradesh means 1000 bundles of 50 leaves each.

The leaves are obtained from Tendu tree (Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.) belonging to Family Ebenaceae, which is endemic to Indian sub-continent. According to Troup (1921) Diospyros melanoxylon (inclusive of D. tomentosa and D. tupru) is one of the most characteristic trees of the dry deciduous forests throughout India, covering the entire Indian peninsula the area of distribution extends upto Nepal in sub-Himalayan tracts including the Indian plain, Gangetic plain, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, western coast upto Malabar and Eastern coast upto Coromandel. The plant is also met with on the Nilgiris and Serawalli hills in the south.

Diospyros melanoxylon leaf is considered the most suitable wrapper on account of the ease with which it can be rolled and its wide availability. Leaves of many other plants like Butea monosperma, Shorea robusta etc. also find use as Bidi wrappers in different parts of the country but the texture, flavour and workability of diospyros leaves are unmatchable. The wide-scale use of Diospyros melanoxylon leaves in Bidi industry is mainly based on their enormous production, agreeable flavour, flexibility, resistance to decay and capacity to retain fires. The broad morphological characters on which leaves, are selected and catagorised for Bidi making are size, thickness of leaves, texture, relative thickness of midrib and lateral veins.

Bidi rolling is the primary job which is very simple and can be done at any place at any time. It is a source of subsidiary occupation and supplementary income to lakhs of poor rural folk Bidi industry provides employment to the rural population during off season for collection of bidi leaves. Obviously, bidi industry has a vital role in rural welfare and in promoting rural economy.

The procedure for collection and processing of tendu leaves has almost been standardised and almost the same procedure is used everywhere. The tendu plants are pruned in the months of February and March and the mature leaves are collected after about 45 days. The leaves are collected in bundles of 50 to 100 leaves, which are dried in sunlight for about a week. The dried leaves are sprinkled with water to soften them and then filled tightly in jute bags and exposed to direct sunlight for 2 days. The bags, thus packed and cured can be stored till their use in Bidi manufacture. Great care is needed while plucking, curing and storage of tendu leaves. It is a sensitive product and with the slightest mistakes or oversight during any of these processes their quality deteriorates rendering them unfit for making Bidis.

Bundles of Tendu Leaves heaped before bagging The State Government enacted an Act in 1964 and took over the trade in Tendu Leaves. In order to give more benefits to forest dwellers in collection and trade of Tendu Leaves, the Madhya Pradesh State Minor Forest Produce (Trading & Development) Co-operative Federation Limited was formed in 1984. In 1988, the State Government decided to involve co-operative societies in the trade of Tendu Leaves. For this, a three tier Co-operative structure was designed. M.P.State Minor Forest Produce Federation was placed at the apex level of this structure. At the primary level, Primary Forest Produce Co-operative Societies were constituted. At the secondary level, District Forest Produce Co-operative Unions were formed.

Collection of    Tendu Leaves is done by the Primary Co-operative Societies of actual pluckers of Tendu Leaves. There are over 15,000 collection centres in the State. The collection work is seasonal. It lasts for about 6 weeks. Depending on the geographical location of Districts, the season may commence any time from the middle of April to second week of May. The collection stops ten to fifteen days before the onset of the monsoon, so that leaves can be cured, bagged & safely transported to godowns.

Data of Tendu Leaves Trade

Year Collection Collection
Rate per S.B
Collection Wages Quantity Stored Quantity disposed off Sale Price Expenditure Net receipt
1989 43.61 150 65.42 43.58 43.58 405.15 114.70 290.45
1990 61.15 250 152.88 60.57 60.57 248.47 209.12 39.35
1991 46.16 250 115.40 45.79 45.79 298.07 180.00 118.07
1992 45.06 250 112.65 44.64 44.64 285.99 201.47 84.52
1993 41.31 300 123.93 40.98 40.98 252.77 198.29 54.48
1994 42.38 300 127.14 42.08 42.08 299.40 210.95 88.45
1995 39.56 300 118.68 39.36 39.36 289.39 197.80 91.59
1996 44.60 350 156.10 44.43 44.43 338.85 269.38 69.47
1997 40.14 350 140.49 39.95 39.95 338.69 244.05 94.64
1998 45.47 400 181.84 45.23 45.23 407.66 280.39 127.27
1999 49.37 400 194.20 49.12 49.12 402.20 283.87 118.33
2000 29.59 400 114.78 29.49 29.49 176.31 160.08  16.23
2001 21.28 400 83.09 21.22 21.22 111.05 136.07  -
2002 22.74 400 89.04 22.65 22.65 165.77 143.83  21.94
2003 22.25 400 87.56 22.21 22.21 152.95 140.71 12.24
2004 25.77 400 101.61 25.72 25.72 167.71 145.86 21.85
2005 16.83 400 66.37 16.82 16.82 131.41 106.90 24.51
2006 17.97 400 71.88 17.97 17.97 151.33 100.56 50.77
2007 24.21 450 108.95 24.21 24.21 373.64 136.89 236.75
2008 18.25 550 100.35 18.25 18.25 211.26 136.57 74.69
2009 20.49 550 112.67 20.49 20.49 265.49 149.86 115.63
2010 21.24 650 138.11 21.24 21.24 332.89 179.71 153.18
2011 17.06 650 110.80 17.06 17.06 310.06 154.10 155.96
2012 26.06 750 195.45 26.06 26.06 634.13 245.94 388.19
2013* 19.93 950 189.31 19.93 19.60 400.58 226.59 173.99

Note:-
* Figures for 2013 season are to be finalised

1) Quantity: In lakh Standard Bags (1 Standard Bag=50,000 leaves);
2) Amount: In Rs. Crores.

Collection Rates in Different Seasons

Season Area Collection Rate
(Rs. per S.B.)
1999, 2000 & 2001 5 D.U.- Shivpuri,Bhopal,Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh & N. Sagar 300/-
All other D.U. 400/-
2002 4 D.U.- Bhopal,Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh & N. Sagar 300/-
All other D.U. 400/-
2003,2004,2005 3 D.U.- Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh & N. Sagar 300/-
All other D.U. 400/-
2006 All D.U. 400/-
2007 All D.U. 450/-
2008,2009 All D.U. 550/-
2010,2011 All D.U. 650/-
2012 All D.U. 750/-
2013 All D.U. 950/-

From 2000 season, figures are for the new state of M.P..

Group Insurance Scheme

A group insurance scheme for the Tendu leaves pluckers was launched in 1991. It is the biggest insurance scheme of its kind in the whole of Asia. All tendu leaves pluckers between 18 and 60 years of age (about 24 lakh) are insured free of cost under this scheme. The scheme is run by the Life Insurance Corporation of India. Following insurance amounts are paid under this scheme.
  • In case of death of any plucker covered under this scheme, his nominee is paid Rs. 3500/-.
  • In case of disability due to accident, the plucker is paid an amount of Rs. 12500/-
  • In case, the death or permanent disability caused is due to accident, the amount of insurance is Rs. 25000/-.
The nominees of the pluckers are provided all help and guidance in the submission of claims. The settlement of claims is also monitored regularly. Till now, 207445 claims have been settled and an amount of Rs. 82.07 Crores paid to the nominees of the deceased pluckers. Yearwise breakup of the settled claims is given in the table below

Details of settlement of claims
Year No of claims Settled Amount of insurance paid
(In Rs. crores)
1991-92 1194 0.36
1992-93 3235 0.99
1993-94 8238 2.48
1994-95 10699 3.37
1995-96 10361 3.54
1996-97 16522 5.75
1997-98 13249 4.69
1998-99 10215 3.76
1999-2000 15026 5.26
2000-01 18242 7.11
2001-02 16271 6.69
2002-03 10750 4.75
2003-04 11040 4.60
2004-05 10564 4.63
2005-06 4130 2.04
2006-07 13737 6.47
2007-08 8761 3.71
2008-09 10572 5.62
2009-10 6404 2.84
2010-11 8235 3.42
Total 207445 82.07

Incentive Wages to Tendu leaves pluckers


  Looking to the huge profit margin of 1989 season the State Govt. decided to distribute Rs. 150 crores as incentive wages to the Tendu leaves pluckers out of the profit of 1989 season . This amount was paid in 4 instalment through accounts of pluckers opened in local branches of Cooperative Banks or credit societies. This payment was discontinued from 1990 season and was again started from 1995 season . For 1995 to 1997 seasons, nearly 20% of net income was paid as incentive wages.
  As a consequence of 73rd Amendment to the Constitution , the State Govt. decided to pass on all the net income from the trade of N.W.F.P. to the societies and the societies , in turn, distributed 50% of this net income to the Tendu leaves pluckers as incentive wages from 1998 season . From 2004 season the proportion of incentive wages has been enhanced to 60% of the net income.
  The amount of incentive wages paid in various years is shown in the table below .
Collection
Season
No of pluckers
(in Lakhs)
Amount of Incentive
wages paid
(In Rs. crores)
1989 21.31 150.00
1995 15.76 10.76
1996 18.02 12.29
1997 22.41 15.30
1998 18.84 27.99
1999 15.50 48.22
2000 4.50 7.30
2002 5.23 8.22
2003 4.64 5.51
2004 8.21 11.80
2005 9.78 13.23
2006 10.87 27.41
2007 12.31 118.58
2008 7.98 38.73
2009 - 62.10
2010 - 82.57
2011 - 98.25
2012 - 244.55



Main Works of the M.P.MFP Federation
Main Works of the District Unions
Main Works of the Primary Societies

 





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